Late 18th century courship and dating in britain
Late 18th century courship and dating in britain - canadian dating personal
Hester Chapman writes of Catherine having a total of seven pregnancies, Neville Williams writes of how Henry was “mindful of earlier miscarriages” in his second year of marriage to Catherine, John Bowle writes of six pregnancies and A. Pollard suggests a total of around ten pregnancies.
Sir John Dewhurst has looked at primary sources and argues that there is only evidence for six pregnancies:- Dewhurst admits that Catherine may have had further miscarriages but that at least one date given by Pollard for a miscarriage is a physical impossibility as he credit Catherine with a miscarriage or stillbirth in July 1514 when she was actually pregnant with the son she delivered in November 1514.
Dewhurst concludes that “In the absence of other evidence, these can surely be dismissed as unsupported rumour and Catherine relieved of the burden of her alleged miscarriages.” Details of Anne’s obstetric history seem to be as hazy as Catherine’s! Elton writes that “the dreary tale of miscarriages was resumed” after Anne’s successful first pregnancy, which implies that Anne had a few miscarriages, at least three.
We know that Anne gave birth to a healthy daughter, Elizabeth, on the 7th September 1533, but exactly how many pregnances did Anne have? Mary Louise Bruce writes that “during the first six months of 1534 she appears to have had one miscarriage after another” which Dewhurst concludes must refer to a maximum of three as “it is scarcely “conceivable” for a woman to have more than three miscarriages within a six-month period”.
Hester Chapman writes of a miscarriage in March 1534, a further pregnancy in April and a possible third in July , all of which ended in miscarriages. “Thus the Lisle letter relieves Anne of the burden of one alleged miscarriage and careful examination of the evidence surrounding a possible pregnancy in 1534 provides little if any support for any miscarriage that year.
Last week, I considered the role of Anne’s final miscarriage in the fall of Anne Boleyn and the Boleyn faction.
Although Retha Warnicke concludes that “her fall was almost certainly triggered by the nature of the miscarriage she was to suffer in late January, for there is no evidence that she had been in any personal or political danger”, I cannot believe that the miscarriage was the sole reason for Anne’s downfall and I have to agree with Professor Eric Ives who says:- The miscarriage may well have made Anne’s position more vulnerable, particularly because it coincided with the death of Catherine of Aragon, but it was not the catalyst of Anne Boleyn’s fall.
It was just one factor which contributed to the undoing of this queen, one more thing which her enemies could use against her and to make Henry doubt his second wife.But why did Anne’s miscarriage have any impact at all?To understand why this final miscarriage may have shaken Henry’s faith in Anne and his marriage, we have to examine Anne’s obstetric history and also look at that of Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon.The miscarriage of January 1536 was not an isolated incident.There is a fascinating article by Professor Sir John Dewhurst entitled “The Alleged Miscarriages of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn”, in which he examines the obstetric histories of both Catherine and Anne. Scarisbrick, Catherine of Aragon had “several miscarriages, three infants who were either stillborn or died immediately after birth (two of them males), two infants who died within a few weeks of birth (one of them a boy) and one girl, Princess Mary”.When we consider that Henry VIII got his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled because she could not bear him a son and that some feel that he executed Anne Boleyn for the same reason, we have to conclude that these women’s obstetric histories are worth looking at. Dewhurst makes the point that “several” must mean three or more so Scarisbrick is crediting Catherine with a total of nine pregnancies, only one of which gave Henry a living heir and it was a girl.